Wednesday, March 6, 2013

Odd Temperature Scales

The things you learn reading Russian novels. In The Brothers Karamozov, I ran across a mention of temperature in a scale I didn't know: "eleven Reaumur". What? I looked it up and discovered that there are a lot of temperature scales other than Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin; there are also Rankine, Romer, Newton, Delisle, and Reaumur. Like Celsius, the zero in the Reaumer scale is set at the freezing point of water, but the boiling point of water is 80°, not 100°.

The scale was first proposed by Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur in 1730. It was popular in Europe in the 16th century, especially France, Germany, and Russia, and showed up in novels by Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, and Nabokov. Instead of saying "minus 12" or "12 below zero", the phrase was "twelve degrees of frost" (at least in The Brothers Karamozov), which is much cooler and more evocative of winter.

The Reaumur scale is used in one of my favorite infographics ever, this one showing Napoleon's march into - and back out of - Russia in 1812-1813. The temperatures along the bottom are in Reaumur degrees. The width of the line shows the number of men in the army; the thin black line shows the troops that returned to France. It was a cold winter: -30° R is -36° F.


File:Minard.png


In the 1790s, France officially went with the Celsius scale during the French Revolution, and it eventually spread with the metric system throughout Europe. It is still used in some dairies to measure the temperature of milk, and possibly in some parts of France

Russia also used the Delisle thermometer, which originally started at boiling water as zero and ran down 2400 degrees, accommodating those cold Russian winters. The Newton scale was invented by Isaac Newton around 1700; "he defined the 'zeroth degree of heat' as melting snow and '33 degrees of heat' as boiling water." The Rankine scale starts at absolute zero, like the Kelvin scale, but uses Fahrenheit degrees instead of Celsius; it is still occasionally used in a few engineering fields.

19 comments:

Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Anonymous said...

Why so salty

oakleyses said...

christian louboutin outlet, tory burch outlet, nike outlet, uggs on sale, louboutin pas cher, jordan shoes, christian louboutin, louis vuitton outlet, oakley sunglasses, jordan pas cher, ray ban sunglasses, louis vuitton outlet, polo ralph lauren outlet online, nike free, christian louboutin shoes, tiffany jewelry, air max, louis vuitton outlet, polo outlet, christian louboutin uk, longchamp outlet, michael kors pas cher, kate spade outlet, chanel handbags, cheap oakley sunglasses, nike roshe, oakley sunglasses, burberry pas cher, ugg boots, nike free run, prada handbags, oakley sunglasses wholesale, longchamp outlet, louis vuitton, polo ralph lauren, replica watches, sac longchamp pas cher, longchamp outlet, ray ban sunglasses, replica watches, ugg boots, gucci handbags, prada outlet, longchamp pas cher, oakley sunglasses, tiffany and co, ray ban sunglasses, louis vuitton, nike air max

oakleyses said...

michael kors outlet online, michael kors outlet online, hollister uk, ralph lauren uk, coach outlet, true religion jeans, north face uk, ray ban uk, burberry handbags, uggs outlet, timberland pas cher, nike roshe run uk, nike free uk, polo lacoste, new balance, hollister pas cher, hogan outlet, converse pas cher, michael kors, sac hermes, michael kors outlet online, nike air max uk, nike air max, nike air force, michael kors outlet, oakley pas cher, true religion outlet, michael kors, nike air max uk, vans pas cher, north face, true religion outlet, michael kors outlet, ray ban pas cher, michael kors outlet, true religion outlet, coach purses, replica handbags, lululemon canada, burberry outlet, nike blazer pas cher, sac vanessa bruno, michael kors outlet online, coach outlet store online, mulberry uk, guess pas cher, abercrombie and fitch uk, kate spade, nike tn

oakleyses said...

asics running shoes, vans outlet, insanity workout, gucci, oakley, herve leger, reebok outlet, louboutin, beats by dre, ferragamo shoes, celine handbags, giuseppe zanotti outlet, abercrombie and fitch, p90x workout, wedding dresses, mac cosmetics, nike air max, chi flat iron, ghd hair, instyler, jimmy choo outlet, ralph lauren, valentino shoes, ray ban, soccer jerseys, longchamp uk, hollister, lululemon, hermes belt, mcm handbags, lancel, babyliss, new balance shoes, mont blanc pens, nike huaraches, bottega veneta, hollister clothing, converse outlet, nike roshe run, nike trainers uk, north face outlet, soccer shoes, nike air max, vans, north face outlet, timberland boots, baseball bats, hollister, iphone cases, nfl jerseys

oakleyses said...

ugg,uggs,uggs canada, replica watches, canada goose, pandora uk, louis vuitton, pandora jewelry, moncler, moncler, moncler outlet, ugg uk, wedding dresses, toms shoes, swarovski, links of london, coach outlet, canada goose outlet, louis vuitton, louis vuitton, canada goose outlet, pandora jewelry, juicy couture outlet, juicy couture outlet, swarovski crystal, canada goose uk, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, montre pas cher, canada goose jackets, louis vuitton, moncler, moncler outlet, canada goose outlet, pandora charms, marc jacobs, supra shoes, moncler uk, hollister, louis vuitton, doudoune moncler, ugg, thomas sabo, ugg pas cher, canada goose, karen millen uk, canada goose, moncler

roba gad said...

http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-8.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-7.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-6.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-5.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-4.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-3.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-2.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies.html
http://www.prokr.net/2016/09/tiles-polishing-companies-17.html

chenlina said...

chenlina20171108
burberry scarf
nike roshe run
ugg boots
north face jackets
coach outlet
longchamp outlet
michael kors outlet clearance
nfl jerseys wholesale
canada goose outlet
adidas store

chenmeinv0 said...

longchamp
ray ban
michael kors outlet
true religion jeans
nike blazer
hogan outlet
flip flops
asics
puma shoes
thomas sabo
2017.11.29xukaimin