The things you learn reading Russian novels. In The Brothers Karamozov, I ran across a mention of temperature in a scale I didn't know: "eleven Reaumur". What? I looked it up and discovered that there are a lot of temperature scales other than Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin; there are also Rankine, Romer, Newton, Delisle, and Reaumur. Like Celsius, the zero in the Reaumer scale is set at the freezing point of water, but the boiling point of water is 80°, not 100°.
The scale was first proposed by Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur in 1730. It was popular in Europe in the 16th century, especially France, Germany, and Russia, and showed up in novels by Tolstoy, Dostoyevsky, and Nabokov. Instead of saying "minus 12" or "12 below zero", the phrase was "twelve degrees of frost" (at least in The Brothers Karamozov), which is much cooler and more evocative of winter.
The Reaumur scale is used in one of my favorite infographics ever, this one showing Napoleon's march into - and back out of - Russia in 1812-1813. The temperatures along the bottom are in Reaumur degrees. The width of the line shows the number of men in the army; the thin black line shows the troops that returned to France. It was a cold winter: -30° R is -36° F.
In the 1790s, France officially went with the Celsius scale during the French Revolution, and it eventually spread with the metric system throughout Europe. It is still used in some dairies to measure the temperature of milk, and possibly in some parts of France.
Russia also used the Delisle thermometer, which originally started at boiling water as zero and ran down 2400 degrees, accommodating those cold Russian winters. The Newton scale was invented by Isaac Newton around 1700; "he defined the 'zeroth degree of heat' as melting snow and '33 degrees of heat' as boiling water." The Rankine scale starts at absolute zero, like the Kelvin scale, but uses Fahrenheit degrees instead of Celsius; it is still occasionally used in a few engineering fields.